" 'Survival of the fittest' and 'natural selection.'
No matter what phraseology one generates, the basic fact remains the same:
any physical change of any size, shape or form is strictly the result of
purposeful alignment of billions of nucleotides (in the DNA). Nature or
species do not have the capacity for rearranging them, nor adding to them.
Consequently no leap (saltation) can occur from one species to another.
The only way we know for a DNA to be altered is through a meaningful intervention
from an outside source of intelligence: one who knows what it is doing,
such as our genetic engineers are now performing in their laboratories."
- Cohen, I.L. (1984)
Darwin Was Wrong:A Study in Probabilities
New York: NW Research Publications, Inc., p. 209
Charles Darwin made the concept of major evolutionary
change plausible by convincing scientists that natural selection could account
for the appearance of design in nature (Horan, 1979). He would never have
considered evolution to be a fact without a plausible theory of how it could
occur. The very title of his book reflects the importance of an evolutionary
mechanism. Although much evidence has been cited in favor of macroevolution,
as it had been prior to 1859, such evidence in Darwin's own opinion would
be unsatisfactory without a mechanism:
- Darwin, C. (1859)
The Origin of Species (Reprint of the first edition)
Avenel Books, Crown Publishers, New York, 1979
Note: See Horan in the Foreward to this reprint of The Origin of Species
"The essence of Darwinism lies in a single phrase:
natural selection is the creative force of evolu-tionary change. No one
denies that selection will play a negative role in eliminating the unfit.
Darwinian theories require that it create the fit as well."
- Gould, Stephen J. (1977)
"The Return of Hopeful Monsters"
Natural History, Vol. 86, June/July, p. 28
"It is fair to say that Darwin simply assumed that gradual improvement
was possible in general... Darwin's assumption, I will try to show, was
almost certainly wrong. It does not appear to be the case that gradualism
always hold. In some complex systems, any minor change causes catastrophic
changes in the behavior of the system. In these cases ... selection cannot
assemble complex systems. Here is one fundamental limit to selection."
- Kauffman, Stuart
At Home in the Universe, p.152
"... natural selection over the long run does not seem to improve a
species' chance of survival but simply enables it to 'track', or keep up
with, the constantly changing environment."
- Lewontin, Richard C. (1978)
Scientific American, Vol. 239, No. 3, September, pp. 212-230
Darwin was not without his critics. In his book, Darwinism:
The Refutation of a Myth, Soren Lovtrup points out that "some critics
turned against Darwin's teachings for religious reasons, but they were a
minority; most of his opponents ... argued on a completely scientific basis."
He goes on to explain:
- Lovtrup, S. (1987)
Darwinism: The Refutation of a Myth
Croom Helm Ltd., Beckingham, Kent, p. 275
Perhaps the most formidable of Darwin's critics was St.
George Mivart. His major book, On the Genesis of Species, took aim at the
notion that natural selection could account for the accumulation of the
incipient stages of useful structures (Mivart, 1871). Stephen Jay Gould
Gould goes on to point out that among the difficulties of Darwinian theory
"one point stands high above the rest: the dilemma of incipient stages.
Mivart identified this problem as primary and it remains so today."
- Gould, S. J. (1985)
"Not Necessarily a Wing"
Natural History, October, pp. 12, 13
Dr. Robert Macnab of Yale University concluded a major
50 page review of the sensory and motor mechanism of the bacterium, E.
coli, with these remarks:
- Macnab, R. (1978)
"Bacterial Mobility and Chemotaxis: The Molecular Biology of a Behavioral
CRC Critical Reviews in Biochemistry, vol. 5, issue 4, Dec., pp. 291-341
"Is Archaeopteryx the ancestor of all birds? Perhaps
yes, perhaps no: There is no way of answering the question. It is easy enough
to make up stories of how one form gave rise to another, and to find reasons
why the stages should be favored by natural selection. But such stories
are not part of science, for there is no way of putting them to the test."
- Sunderland, Luther D. (1984)
San Diego, Master Books, p.89
(Personal communication from Dr. Colin Patterson to L.D. Sunderland, April