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What Darwin Didn't KnowGeoffrey Simmons, M.D.
Harvest House Publishers, (Paperback Edition), 318 pages, 2004
The lawyers and philosophers got the Intelligent Design movement rolling in the early 1990's. Next the mathematicians and biologists joined in, quickly followed by the chemists and physicists. This past year several medical doctors have joined the fray revealing why Darwinian "just so" stories fail to explain the fantastic complexity of the human body. Howard Glicksman, M.D. recently started a monthly web column at ARN exposing why the step-by-step theories of Darwinian evolution can not account for the complex interdependencies of the human body. Now Geoffrey Simmons, M.D. catalogs over 80 examples of purposeful design in human body that defy explanation by the Darwinian process of chance mutation and natural selection.
Darwin might have thought twice about publishing his theories if he'd had access to today's medical and microbiological discoveries. Drawing on years of research, Dr. Simmons demonstrates that the almost infinite complexity of the human anatomy simply could not have developed by chance. For example:
The great thing about Simmons' book is you don't have to have a biology degree to understand it. It's written for the layman and includes helpful drawings, diagrams and photos to illustrate his points. At the end of the preface Simmons states that he once asked Carl Sagan why he thought humans could have developed into such complex beings through mere evolution. Sagan's answer simply stated, was "six billion years." Simmons concludes "I thought he was wrong then, and I know he's wrong now." He then ends the book claiming "I am not a theologian, nor do I pretend to be. I'm merely a collector and analyzer of biological and medical facts. The data, as I see it, points directly to an Intelligent Designer, much like a car speaks for an automaker, a soufflï¿½ for a chef, and a play for a playwright. Alternative explanations may yet be found or proposed, but the theory of evolution cannot satisfy what the facts demand."
"Geoffrey Simmons makes Darwinism's sleight of
hand plain to see."
"In What Darwin Didn't Know, Dr. Simmons gives
a marvelous, entertaining, physician's-eye view of the intricate functioning
of the human body. The relentless detailing of biological elegance and
complexity overwhelms facile Darwinian stories as a tidal wave overwhelms
"Several years ago the prestigious peer-reviewed
journal Science carried a research article titled 'Did Darwin Get It
All Right?' The subtitle answered the question with a 'No.' There is
a tide of data mounting against the Darwinian (though not necessarily
Darwin's) concept that randomness can explain the wonder of life. In
What Darwin Didn't Know, Geoffrey Simmons converts that tide into a
tidal wave of evidence. In his book, Simmons treats us to the respect
for the complexity of life he has gained as a doctor with 35 years of
experience. His frontline experience with the challenges of maintaining
life has given him insights that armchair and laboratory biologists
"Sit back and enjoy as Dr. Simmons leads you on
an exhilarating romp through your own anatomy. Journey past your taste
buds. (Did you know they're in your throat, too?) Explore the complexity
of reproduction. Celebrate the miracle of your birthday. Examine the
differences between man and ape. And in the end, be prepared to confront
the overwhelming evidence against Darwin's explanation for your existence."
Dr. Geoffrey Simmons has studied the human body and evolutionary theory for more than 40 years. He received his M.D. in 1969 and now practices medicine in Oregon.
Geoffrey Simmons, M.D. holds two degrees (BS in Zoology and MD) from the University of Illinois. His internship and residency in Internal Medicine were completed at LAC-USC Medical Center from 1969-1970 and 1970-1974. Simmons has nearly forty years of experience working in the medical field, including three years at the Astoria Clinic in Astoria, Oregon and twenty-six years in the Eugene/Springfield community. Over the course of the last twenty-six years living and working in Eugene, Simmons has had a solo practice and has also worked for both the Oregon Medical Group and PeaceHealth Medical Group where he continues to practice now.
Having maintained an active role in the Eugene medical community for many years, Simmons is well connected and informed on local issues and needs. He has served on the Board of Trustees of the Lane County Medical Society (LCMS) for four years. Positions he has held with the LCMS include: LCMS Disaster Preparedness Task Force Chair, Medical Reserve Corps. Chair 2002 and LCMS President-elect 2002/03. Other local groups he has served within the last ten years are the Oregon Medical Group (board member, 1995), PeaceHealth Medical Group Physician Advisory Council (1997), Sacred Heart Medical Center (SHMC) - various committees including: Medical Education Committee, Disaster Committee and By-Laws Committee. Simmons is presently on the SHMC Disaster Preparedness Committee and the Eugene Citizen Corps.
Table of Contents
List of Illustrations
Part I: Basic Issues
Part II: External Connections
Part III: Internal Systems
Part IV: More Enigmas
Chapter 1 Excerpt:
The Problem of Change
Why would man steadily improve in size, skills, and intelligence-given the exposure to the same air, radiation, climate, and foods-while other species have remained unimproved? Did human changes come about by accident, or were they the result of intelligent design? Or could they be both? These have been, and continue to be, major questions-and there are many very strongly held beliefs. Curiously, in 1860, Darwin declared,"I had no intent to write atheistically." Yet that is exactly how he has been interpreted.
Although the theories of natural selection, survival of the fittest, and random mutations have retained their appeal for nearly a hundred-and-fifty years, these processes have had little to no impact on many species. One might therefore ask if the "minimum-changers" are innately resistant to mutagens (factors causing mutations), such as variations in global temperature, radiation, ultraviolet light, pathogenic viruses, and toxic chemicals. This is unlikely since all living cells are exquisitely sensitive. Have these steady-state species reached the pinnacle of evolutionary perfection? This is also doubtful, but pinnacles are hard to define. Are they the toughest, smartest, most prolific, fastest, best-camouflaged, or meanest members of their group around? If one looks closely, this is often not the case. Do animals go through short evolutionary bursts or pauses (millions of years)ï¿½and the exceptions of today are merely in a pause? No one can answer this, but it defies contemporary scientific principles. Did an asteroid strike near the Yucatï¿½n Peninsula 65 million years ago, causing tidal waves and nuclear winters that selectively drove dinosaurs to extinction and yet spared many prehuman mammals? If so, one might wonder why the entire evolutionary clock wasn't set back. Then again, is surviving a matter of survival of the fittest- or of the luckiest? Questions such as these cloud evolutionary thought. Even the most ardent supporters of the theory of evolution still call it a theory-with very good reason: no knowledgeable scientist has ever called it the "facts of evolution."
The Problem of Complexity
Did these all-knowing genes come about through a series of accidents? If so, that would mean that an average of two bases were added to our chromosomes per year throughout the presumed three billion years of life. They were also placed in the right order at the right time on the correct chromosomes, and were fully capable of coordinating with the other genes. For example, the genes that control human eye color and shape must either reside close by each other or have a way of communicating. The gene specifying the texture of a person's hair would not function well if it were placed with the genes for the ear or for bladder function. A major challenge to evolution has been whether repeated mutations could truly have created changes in the correct order.
No such data exists.
The body automatically maintains its design integrity. There are no fossils found with lopsided extremities. Somehow the top half coordinates with the bottom half, the left side with the right side, the front with the back. Just the complexity of managing simultaneous, coordinated growth alone is overwhelming. Can it possibly be coincidence?
Look at how we transfer sugar, minerals, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, and vitamins from our dinner plates to our mouths, down to the gastrointestinal tract, through the walls of the small bowel, into the bloodstream, through the liver, and ultimately to every cell in the body. Millions of macroscopic and microscopic processes are utilized. How does the body even know which sugar (and there are many types) to absorb, or which protein (and there are hundreds) goes where, when, and in what quantity? How does it know which substances are safe to absorb, and which should be ignored, quickly eliminated, or destroyed? How does the small bowel know how to cooperate with the 500 different kinds of bacteria that live in it? These are incredibly complex functions that work together-and only together-to maintain the health of an individual.
How does the body know when there's too much or too little sugar in the bloodstream and whether more or less insulin should be secreted? How does it mobilize the sugar stored in the liver and change it into energy,using as many as 1000 mitochondria per cell? Questions such as these are endless, yet they address important bodily functions that were unknown at Darwin's time. Evolution says we easily changed from prehistoric fish digesting algae to primates whosavor meat. But not only do humans have many more and different digestive processes than our presumed forebears, but experts overlook the relatively sudden appearance of a tongue and a full set of teeth- with a total lack of precedents. There are few, if any, examples of mouths with partial tongues, a single, odd tooth, or both.
The Problem of the Whole-Package Phenomenon
Six billion years doesn't even come close to the time needed to evolve a ten-trillion-plus-cell body. To start, the active amino acids in the primordial soup would have had to link up in such a way that they could reproduce, protect themselves, find nourishment, and add new functions as needed. The likelihood of that happening is akin to having a swimmer from England meeting a swimmer from Florida in the middle of the Atlantic without a GPS system. If the swimmers are to survive beyond that, they would also need to build shelter, catch food, and reproduce-or else they would perish.
To further understand purposeful changes and irreducible complexity, imagine a prehistoric blind man called Gene who started building a wooden bridge off Key West. Although he could not see and lacked knowledge of any distant lands, he added one seemingly "useless" plank after another, aiming directly for Portugal. One day when he was extremely old, he completed the ten-million-plus plank connection. He accomplished this task despite lightning strikes and hurricanes, without making any significant errors. And so it goes with human evolution. There are thousands of such lengthy bridges, and millions of well-aimed, individually useless steps (planks)ï¿½ and yet, according to evolutionists, we came about without a plan.
An incredible number of steps (planks) are needed to manufacture and use insulin. We all secrete this twisted, multifaceted hormone after each meal to control sugar. A shortage results in uncontrolled sugar levels in the bloodstream, or diabetes; an excess may cause hypoglycemia or fainting. In the process of insulin manufacture, none of the several "pre-insulin" molecules are useful (envision a car being made along an assembly line). Not only is this an all-or-none process, but so are the mechanisms that tell the body when to secrete insulin, how much insulin to produce or secrete, for how long, where to send it, how to link it to nutrients in the blood, how to transport it, and how to turn it off when the job is done.
The Problem of Intermediates
If humans truly had monkeys as prehistoric intermediates, shouldn't there still be, somewhere in the world, a remote family of humans that still walk on all fours, or a few folks with very long arms, or people who hang from and procreate in trees, or groups who still eat ticks found on their spouses? Shouldn't some humans have retained a hairy coat? Desmond Morris wrote that there are 193 living species of monkeys and apes and that 192 are covered with hair. It seems odd that only one line requires parkas, gloves, and electric heating for chilly nights. Survival of the fittest should have enhanced those who had natural protection from the cold. And where did that tail go? The entire appendage just dropped off.
Listen to Mr. Darwin's worries on the subject:
Ape babies pass through the birth canal with their faces looking up, whereas most human babies face downward. How did the birth of a child swing around 180 degrees without any intermediate stages? It seems as though the entire human race would have perished if that change had evolved slowly-a baby would die quickly if its head passed through the pelvis sideways and got stuck; it would probably kill the mother as well. If this flip-over had happened suddenly, the change would have required an immeasurable number of simultaneous, purposeful, genetic mutations in both mother and baby. It couldn't have just happened. So if it could not have happened slowly and it could not have come about quickly, where's the answer? That depends on one's belief system, not known facts. It's also odd that the gorilla, which is double human-size, delivers an infant that is 50-percent smaller than the average human baby. Maybe we humans should have smaller babies, which favors survival-not ones whose heads are so large they can damage and sometimes kill their mothers. Perhaps the original primates delivered their babies face down, and apes (not us) are the changed ones. If so, one would then have to explain how the intermediate monkeys survived childbirth.
The Problem of Purposeful Function
The Problem of "Gifts"
What Darwin Didn't Know
If a pig could be made into a fatter pig, Darwin felt that gills could change into lungs, fins into legs, and a monkey into a man. Although an artist makes it look simple, the genetic change from one species to another is more complicated than transforming Paris into Hong Kong. Although man and monkey are 95 to 98 percent genetically similar, the difference at the chemical base level is still in the millions. (Note that the DNA of the zebra fish is 92 percent similar to humans. Why don't zebra fish and monkeys hang out together?)
Despite huge gaps in the fossil evidence, and though he lacked even the simplest of genetic information, Darwin's guesses have dominated modern scientific thought like no other. Even his strongest proponents have admitted there have been significant problems with his theories and have merely offered Band-Aid guesses of their own. What Bertrand Russell once said may readily apply:
The fact that an opinion is widely held is no evidence whatsoever that it is not utterly absurd.
Excerpted from What Darwin Didn't Know by Geoffrey Simmons, M.D. Copyright ï¿½ 2004 by Harvest House Publishers. Excerpted by permission. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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